The formation of the Flinders Ranges began about 800 million years ago when a great depression, known as the Adelaide Geosyncline, developed as the earth's crust stretched and thinned. This caused sea water to flood in for the next 300 million years and rock debris was deposited in the depression. Approximately 500 million years ago, the rock layers of this ancient seabed were squeezed due to colliding plates into long mountain chains, which were then eroded over millions of years leaving only quartzite that now forms the highest peaks. The region’s fossils that have been left behind after this process are of special geological significance, so much so that the geologic time-line of the Earth's history was changed to add a new era called the Ediacaran period
The Arkaba property is flanked by the captivating Elder Range and the most recognised landmark, Wilpena Pound; a vast oval amphitheatre that rises to a height of 1165m at St Mary Peak. Craggy sandstone bluffs, stunning gorges and dry creek beds lined with River Red Gums are characteristic across the region, causing many visitors to describe this area as the quintessential Australian outback experience. Although the River Red Gums are arguably the most adored flora in the area, the semi-arid environment sees abundant Sugar Gums, Casuarinas, Cypress Pines, Mallee and Black Oaks, whilst reeds and sedges grow near permanent water sources such as springs and waterholes. In the northern part of the Arkaba property, thick Spinifex vegetation also provides habitat for a number of endemic species.
The birdlife is also varied with a large population of Emus, Ringneck, Mulga, Red-rumped and Elegant Parrots, Emus, Wedge-tailed Eagles, Black Goshawks, Black Kites and Rufous Whistlers. The ancient landscapes of the stunning property have an Aboriginal history going back tens of thousands of years and for the Adnyamathanha people, the ranges and fauna are still of immense cultural significance.